Artillery for the Land Service
drawn and engraved under the direction of
Brevet Major Alfred Mordecai


J u n e




Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
1. Niles' Weekly Register predicted U.S. populatiohn would double every 23 years. 2. Albert Gallatin reported he planned to sail for France in a few days. 3. Fire in Baltimore, Mary. destroyed hardware store and brass foudry.  4. Andrew Jackson appointed to negotiate cession of Chickasaw and Cherokee lands. 
5. George Logan wrote that Jefferson's political enemies were slandering his name. 6. Former Senator Benjamin Hawkins (N.C.) died in Georgia.

7. Albert Gallatin wrote President James Madison about dismal state of currency in U.S. 

8. Alexandria Gazette reported economist Matthew Carey's strong support of the national bank. 9. Explosion on steamboat Washington killed several men on voyage from Louisville, Kentucky. 10. Treasury Dept. announced it would take bids to construct two lighthouses on Lake Erie.  11. Rembrandt Peale and other investors founded the Gas Light Company of Baltimore. 

12. Sec. of War reported that several underage cadets were enrolled in U.S. Military Academy. 

13. Report of Massachusetts legislature revealed majority of Maine's voters supported statehood. 14. Polish officer thanked American consul William Lee for saving him from execution.  15. Thomas Jefferson wrote Dr. Hoses Humphrey about advances in science and medicine.  16. Portuguese scientist Jose Correia da Serra thanked Jefferson for his visits to Monticello. 17. Massachusetts Senate passed bill to establish Maine as a separate state.  18. Committee was created in Washington, DC to celebrate 40th anniversary of independence.
19. William H. Crawford wrote President Madison about the death of Senator Benjamin Hawkins.  20. President Madison issued orders for the celebration of the fourth of July in Boston. 21. William Wirt requested President Madison change law that allowed district attorneys to appoint deputies. 22. Indiana statehood convention concluded with resolution in favor of statehood.  23. Sec. of the Navy informed President Madison of complaints by Algiers against U.S. military force. 24. Officers seeking payment for lost property were informed they must prove they had not already been paid. 25. Massachusetts newspaper complained that Maine statehood would increase taxes in both states. 
26. Crawford asked Madison for instructions on Chickasaw negotiations.  27. Daily National Intelligencer speculated that sun spots caused unusually cold summer weather.  28  Independent Chronicle reported Congress had fixed the salary of congressional chaplains. 29. Architect B. Henry Latrobe reported that repairs to the Capitol were going well.  30. Tariff of 1816 went into effect setting a 15 percent duty of imported goods. 

Civil War Naval Chronology 1865



2. Boat from USS New London, Lieutenant A. Read, captured yachts Comet and Algerine near New Basin, Louisiana.

Eleven men in two boats under Acting Master Samuel Curtis from USS Kingfisher, while on an expedition up Aucilla River, Florida, to obtain fresh water, were surprised by Confederate attackers; two were killed and nine were captured.

2-3.USS Unadilla, Lieutenant Collins, Pembina, E. B. Hale, Ellen, and Henry Andrew provided close gun-fire support for Army landings and operations on James Island, South Carolina.

3. USS Gem of the Sea, Lieutenant Baxter, captured blockade runner Mary Stewart at the entrance of South Santee River, South Carolina.

USS Montgomery, Lieutenant C. Hunter, captured blockade running British schooner Will-O= -
transferring powder and percussion caps to a lighter near the mouth of the Rio Grande|River.

4. Confederates evacuated Fort Pillow, Tennessee, on the Mississippi River during the night of 4-5 June after sustaining prolonged bombardment by Union gunboats and mortars. On 5 June the Union fleet under Captain Davis and transports moved down the river to within two miles of Memphis.

5. Tug assigned to USS Benton, Captain Davis, captured steamer Sovereign near Island No. 37 in the Mississippi River.

Confederate steamer Havana set afire in Deadman's Bay, Florida, to prevent her capture by USS|Ezilda, tender to USS Somerset, Lieutenant English.

6. USS Benton, Louisville, Carondelet, St. Louis, and Cairo under Captain Davis, and rams Queen of the West and Monarch under Colonel Charles Ellet, Jr., engaged Confederate River Defense Fleet, CSS Earl Van Darn, General Beauregard, General M. Jeff Thompson, Colonel Lovell, General Bragg, General Sumter, General Stealing Price, and Little Rebel under Captain Montgomery in the Battle of Memphis. In the ensuing close action Queen of the West was rammed and Colonel Ellet mortally wounded. The Confederate River Defense Fleet was destroyed; all ships, excepting Van Dorn, were either captured, sunk, or grounded on the river bank to avoid sinking. Memphis surrendered to Captain Davis, and the pressure of relentless naval power had placed another important segment of the Mississippi firmly under Union control.

USS Pembina, Lieutenant Bankhead, seized schooner Rowena in Stono River, South Carolina.

7. Lieutenant Wyman, commander of Potomac Flotilla, reported USS Anacostia had captured sloop Monitor in Piankatank River, Virginia.

7-10. USS Wissahickon, Commander John DeCamp, and Itasca, Lieutenant Coldwell, shelled Confederate batteries at Grand Gulf, Mississippi; they were joined 10 June by gunboats USS Iroquois and Katahdin.

8. USS Penobscot, Lieutenant John M. B. Clitz, burned schooner Sereta, grounded and deserted off Shallotte Inlet, North Carolina.

9. Secretary of the Navy Welles wrote Senator John P. Hale, Chairman of the Senate Naval Committee, and expressed his belief that the only security against any foreign war was having a Navy second to none: A The fact that a radical change has commenced in the construction and armament of ships, which change in effect dispenses with the navies that have hitherto existed, is obvious, and it is a question for Congress to decide whether the Government will promptly take the initiatory step to place our country in the front rank of maritime powers .. . Other nations, whose wooden ships-of-war far exceed our own in number, cannot afford to lay them aside, but are compelled to plate them with iron at very heavy cost. They are not unaware of the disadvantage of this proceeding, but it is a present necessity. It must be borne in mind, however, that those governments which are striving for naval supremacy are sparing no expense to strengthen themselves by building iron vessels, and already their dock-yards are undergoing the necessary preparation for this change in naval architecture . . .@

On a joint expedition up the Roanoke River to Hamilton, North Carolina, USS Commodore Perry, Lieutenant Flusser, accompanied by Shawsheen and Ceres with troops embarked, came under small arms fire for two hours from Confederates along the banks. Troops were landed at Hamilton without opposition where steamer Wilson was captured.

11. USS Susquehanna, Commander Robert B. Hitchcock, captured blockade runner Princeton in the Gulf of Mexico.

USS Bainbridge, Commander Brasher, captured schooner Baigorry with cargo of cotton in the 
Gulf of Mexico.

14. USS William G. Anderson, Acting Master N. D'Oyley, captured schooner Montebello, moored in Jordan River, Mississippi.

U.S. tug Spitfire captured steamer Clara Dolsen in White River, Arkansas.

15. USS Corwin, Lieutenant T. S. Phelps, captured schooner Starlight on Potopotank Creek, Virginia.

USS Tahoma, Lieutenant John C. Howell, and Somerset, Lieutenant English, crossed the
bar of St. Marks River, Florida, and shelled the Confederate fort near the lighthouse for forty|minutes. The artillery company stationed there withdrew, and the sailors landed destroyed 
the battery, and burned the buildings used as barracks.

16. CSS Maurepas steamers Eliza G. and Mary Patterson were sunk in White River, Arkansas, to obstruct the advance of Union gunboats.

USS Somerset, Lieutenant English, captured blockade running schooner Curlew off Cedar Keys, Florida.

17. Joint expedition, made at the request of Major General Halleck to open Army communications on the White River, under Commander Kilty in USS Mound City, with St. Louis, Lexington, Conestoga, and a regiment of troops, engaged Confederate batteries at St. Charles, Arkansas. Mound City took a direct hit at close range, exploding her steam drum and causing heavy casualties. Covered by the gunboats, the troops landed and successfully stormed the earthworks. This action gave control of the White River to the Union fleet.

Captain Blake, Superintendent of the U.S. Naval Academy, wrote Assistant Secretary of the Navy Fox regarding the curriculum of the Academy: A To make the Academy a school for engineers would require considerable changes in the Academic Course. Descriptive geometry, which was struck out of it sometime since, should be restored, for it is needed in the study and comprehension of machines. There should also be an extension of the course of Analytical Geometry and Calculus, by means of which many of the formulas relating to steam, and the steam engine, are derived, and the course of drawing, which now embraces mechanical drawing to some degree, should be extended. We should also have more chemistry.@ Through the years the Naval Academy curriculum has been reviewed and revised to meet the demands of new technology and new dimensions in sea power.

Charles H. Davis appointed Flag Officer and Commander of U.S. Naval Forces on the Mississippi, relieving Flag Officer Foote. Davis had been in actual command since the departure of Foote on 9 May. Secretary of the Navy Welles congratulated Foote for the A series of successful actions which have contributed so largely to the suppression of the rebellion throughout the Southwest.@

19, U.S. sloop Florida, tender to Morning Light, Acting Lieutenant Henry T. Moore, captured sloop Ventura off Grant's Pass, Mobile Bay, with cargo of rice and flour.

Admiral Buchanan, CSN, wrote to Lieutenant Catesby ap R. Jones about the destruction of CSS Virginia: A I have great confidence in my old friend Commodore T[intmall] and cannot believe that he acted without reflection, or was governed by any other motives than those his judgment told him was right . . . There is one thing very certain: The destruction of the Virginia saved Richmond, for if you all had not been at the bluff [Drewry's] Richmond would have been shelled and perhaps taken.@

Commander Maury, CSN, reported to Secretary of the Navy Mallory on his mining operations near Chaffin's Bluff in the James River. Electric torpedoes (mines) made of boiler plate encased in water-tight wooden casks were planted with the assistance of CSS Teaser, Lieutenant Davidson. Maury noted that one of the galvanic batteries had been loaned for this service by the University of Virginia.

20. Commander Semmes wrote Confederate Secretary of the Navy Mallory: A It will doubtless be a matter of delicacy and management to get the Alabama safely out of British waters without
suspicion, as Mr. [Charles F.] Adams, the Northern envoy, and his numerous satellites are exceedingly vigilant in their espionage. We cannot, of course, think of arming her in a British port. This must be done at some concerted rendezvous, to which her battery and most of her crew must be sent in a merchant vessel . . . I think well of your suggestion of the East Indies as a cruising ground, and hope to be in the track of the enemy's commerce in those seas as early as October or November next, when I shall doubtless be able to make other rich 'burnt offerings' upon the altar of our country's liberties
. . .@

Lieutenant Hunter Davidson, commanding CSS Teaser, the first mine-layer, ordered to relieve Commander Matthew F. Maury A in the charge of devising, placing, and superintending submarine batteries in the James River, and you will exercise your discretion as to the ways and means of placing obstacles of this and of any other character to oppose the enemy's passage of the river.@

USS Madgie, Acting Master Frank B. Meriam, took 3,000 bushels of rice from a vessel at Barrett's Island, near Darien, South Carolina, and captured schooner Southern Belle above that city.

USS Beauregard, Acting Master David Stearns, seized blockade running British schooner Lucy
off Deadman's Point Bay, Florida.

USS Keystone State, Commander LeRoy, captured blockade running British schooner Sarah
with cargo of cotton off Charleston.

Two boats under command of Acting Master Theodore B. DuBois of USS Albatross captured
steam tug Treaty and schooner Louisa near Georgetown, South Carolina.

21. Joint expedition under Lieutenant Rhind, USS Crusader, with Planter in company, ascended to Simmons Bluff, Wadmelaw River, South Carolina. Lieutenant Rhind landed with troops and destroyed a Confederate encampment.

USS Bohio, Acting Master W. D. Gregory, captured sloop L. Rebecca bound from Biloxi to Mobile.

26. General McClellan notified Flag Officer L. M. Goldsborough that the urgency for safely bringing the provision transports from the Pamunkey to the James River was A a matter of vital importance and may involve the existence of the Army.@ A Confederate offensive had cut McClellan's line of communications with his main base at White House on the Pamunkey River.

USS Kensington, Acting Master Frederick Crocker, with mortar schooners Horace Beals and
Sarah Bruen, proceeding towards Vicksburg, silenced a Confederate battery near Cole's Creek,|Mississippi River.

USS Mount Vernon, Commander Glisson, with Mystic and Victoria chased blockade runner Emily standing in for Wilmington. Emily grounded and a boat crew commanded by Acting Master W. N. Griswold from Mount Vernon boarded and destroyed her while under heavy fire from Fort Caswell.

27. USS Bohio, Acting Master W. D. Gregory, captured sloop Wave, bound from Mobile to Mississippi City with cargo of flour.

USS Bienville, Commander Mullany, captured schooner Morning Star off Wilmington.

USS Cambridge, Commander W. A. Parker, chased blockade runner Modern Greece ashore off Wilmington, where she was subsequently destroyed with cargo of gunpowder, rifled cannon, and other arms.

28. Flag Officer Farragut's fleet, supported by mortar boats under Commander D. D. Porter, successfully passed Vicksburg while exchanging a heavy fire with Confederate batteries. Farragut was acting under orders from President Lincoln to A clear the river.@

Flag Officer Davis wrote Secretary of the Navy Welles: A Our recent experience in the navigation of White River has made it apparent that in order to acquire control of the tributaries of the Mississippi, and to maintain that control during the dry season, it will be necessary to fit up immediately some boats of small draft for this special purpose. These boats will be sufficiently protected about the machinery and pilot houses against musketry. They will be selected for their light draft and their capacity to receive a suitable armament of howitzers, fieldpieces, or other light guns, and to accommodate the requisite number of men; and, finally, for their susceptibility of protection.@

USS Braziliera captured schooner Chance with cargo of salt off Wassaw Sound, Georgia.

28-29. USS Marblehead, Lieutenant S. Nicholson, and Chocura, Lieutenant Thomas H. Patterson, in the Pamunkey River, supported Army withdrawal from White House, Virginia, with gunfire and transport. Other Union gunboats escorted transports and moved up the James and Chickahominy Rivers in close support of General McClellan's army.

29. USS Susquehanna, Commander Hitchcock, in company with Kanawha, Lieutenant Commander J. C. Febiger, captured blockade running British steamer Ann near Mobile with cargo of arms and ammunition.

29-30. Confederate troops fired on Lexington, Lieutenant Shirk, on White River between St. Charles and Clarendon, Arkansas.

30.Major General McClellan, compelled to withdraw down the James and dependent upon the Navy for gunfire support and transportation, reported: A I returned from Malvern to Haxall's, andwent on board of Captain Rogers' gunboat U.S.S. Galena to confer with him in reference to the condition of our supply vessels and the state of things on the river. It was his opinion that it would be necessary for the army to fall back to a position below City Point, as the channel there was so near the southern shore that it would not be possible to bring up the transports should the enemy occupy it. Harrison's Landing was, in his opinion, the nearest suitable point. . . . Concurring in his opinion, I selected Harrison's Bar as the new position of the army.@ McClellan noted one of many instances of invaluable naval support as the Confederates pressed to cut off the Union movement to the river: A The rear of the supply trains and the reserve artillery of the army reached Malvern Hill about 4 p.m. At about this time the enemy began to appear in General Fitz John Porter's front, and at 5 o'clock advanced in large force against his flank, posting artillery under cover of a skirt of timber, with a view to engage our force on Malvern Hill . . . The gunboats rendered most efficient aid at this time, and helped drive back the enemy.@ Naval gunfire support was controlled through a system of liaison in which A fall-of-shot@ information was sent by Army signal personnel ashore to Army signal personnel afloat in the gunboats by the Myer's system of signaling.

USS Quaker City, Commander Frailey, captured brig Model with cargo of coal in the Gulf of Mexico.

Flag Officer Du Pont ordered USS South Carolina, Commander Almy, to join Wyandotte in blockading Mosquito Inlet near New Smyrna, Florida. The inlet had become increasingly important to the Confederates as an unloading point for blockade runners bringing arms from Nassau.

Confederate Ships

Lady Davis
(ScTug: t. 250; a. 1 24-pdr., 1 12-pdr. r.)

          Lady Davis, formerly the Richmond iron, steam tug James Gray, built at Philadelphia in 1858, was purchased in March 1861 by Governor Pickens of South Carolina, who armed her and placed in command Lt. W. G. Dozier, South Carolina Navy, with orders to thwart reinforcement of Fort Sumter by Union troops.
        On 7 May 1861 Lady Davis was purchased by the Confederacy for $32,000 and commissioned in the Confederate Navy, operating thereafter along the Georgia as well as the South Carolina coasts. Lt. T. P. Pelot, CSN, took command about 5 days later, relieving Lt. E. C. Stockton, South Carolina Navy. At that time, the little gunboat served as flagship of Commodore Tattnall’s Savannah Defense Squadron, consisting of CSS (Old) Savannah, Samson and Resolute.
        On 19 May Lady Davis began her career with distinction by capturing and taking into Beaufort the A. B. Thompson, a full-rigged ship of 980 tons and a crew of 23 out of Brunswick, Maine, whom she encountered off Savannah while on an expedition seeking the U.S. armed brig Perry. The exploit culminated in acrimonious litigation to decide whether an Army captain and a dozen of his soldiers should share in the prize money. Capt. Stephen Elliott, Jr., CSA, happened to be on board and acted as pilot during the capture and afterward, while his men claimed to have helped bring in the prize.
        On the following day, the crew were reenlisted into the Confederate States Navy, the State officers being replaced by regulars between then and 1 June. Lady Davis's rifled gun remained the property of South Carolina, on loan, while the other, a 24-pounder howitzer, was a gift outright to the Confederacy. By November, Lt. John Rutledge commanded her.
        She joined in the battle of Port Royal, S.C., 7 November 1861. Although her engines were transferred to CSS Palmetto State late in 1862, well built iron hulls were in great demand and she was able to continue her successful career as a privately owned blockade runner out of Charleston. With the occupation of Charleston in 1865 by Federal forces, Lady Davis was captured and turned over to the Light House Board by Adm. J. A. Dahlgren, who praised her hull, while noting that she was, again, minus her machinery, disposition of which is not recorded.

Lady Walton
(StwStr: t. 150)

        Lady Walton, built in 1858 at Cincinnati, Ohio, operated as a Confederate steamer until 6 June 1863 when she came down the Little Rock River and surrendered to USS Tyler at the mouth of the White River. The prize was sent to Cairo, Ill., for appraisal.

(SwStr: t. 377; I. 190'; b. 30'; dph. 9'; cpl. 75)

        Landis, also known as Joseph Landis, I. C. Landis, and Landis, was a high pressure steamer built in 1853 at Cincinnati, Ohio. She was partly owned by her master, M. Davis, until acquired at New Orleans by the Confederate States in 1862 to be used primarily as a tender to CSS Louisiana. On 22 April 1861, Captain Davis had applied for a letter of marque, with Peter Marcy and others, at New Orleans, alleging Joseph Landis was A very fast.@
        Under Captain Davis, Landis was attached to the force of Capt. J. K. Mitchell, CSN, commanding Confederate naval forces in the lower Mississippi in the area of the Confederate forts St. Philip and Jackson. On 20 April 1862 she helped tow the unfinished and still unmanageable Confederate ram Louisiana into place near the guns of Fort St. Philip, in anticipation of a defensive engagement with Union forces. Landis also served as living quarters for many of the officers and crew of Louisiana while the latter, with mechanics on board day and night, was being prepared for battle.
         Flag Officer D. G. Farragut, USN, ran his fleet up the lower Mississippi past the Confederate forts on 24 April 1862, and inflicted great damage on the Confederate ships. Landis, although remaining seaworthy, was seriously hurt. Captain Davis and his crew left her and turned her over to Captain Mitchell to be operated directly by the Confederate Navy.
        The Confederate forts, Jackson and St. Philip, surrendered on 28 April 1862 to Comdr. D. D. Porter, USN. Captain Mitchell set fire to Louisiana on the east bank of the Mississippi near Fort St. Philip to keep her from falling into Union hands, He and his men, realizing that capture was inevitable, retired to the opposite shore with the unarmed tenders Landis and W. Burton. After three Federal gunboats fired over them, Landis and W. Burton, under Captain Mitchell, surrendered to Commander Porter.
        Landis was used by the U.S. Army as a tugboat and transport in the Mississippi River and Gulf areas for the rest of the war.


Lapwing sailed from Boston, Mass., en route to Batavia, Java, with a cargo of coal, tobacco, and provisions when she was captured by CSS Florida on 28 March 1863. Lt. J. N. Maffitt, CSN, commanding Florida, transferred two howitzers, two officers, and 18 men to the prize and placed Lt. S. W. Averett, CSN, in command with orders to meet him in longitude 30E W. on the Equator or at the island of Fernando de Noronha. At that time Averett was addressed as commanding officer of the C.S. tender Oreto but thereafter this ship was referred to as Lapwing.
        Florida fell in with Lapwing off the coast of Brazil on 14 April and again on 3 May. Lieutenant Averett reported the capture on 20 April of the American ship Kate Dyer bonded by him because she bore a neutral cargo. His ship was leaking so badly at the time that she was unfit for cruising; consequently her armament was returned to Florida. Averett was replaced by Acting Master R. S. Floyd, CSN, who was directed to anchor under the Rocas, 80 miles west of Fernando de Noronha where Florida would coal. Floyd waited the stipulated 30 days, but faced with a shortage of provisions, burned his ship on 20 June 1863. He and his men went ashore in the ship's boats and reported to the Confederate agent on Barbados.

Launch No. 1

        Launch No. 1, Acting Master J. M. Rogers in command, was present with CSS Cotton, Hart, and Segar in Berwick Bay when Union gunboats came up to engage in early November 1862. Launch No. 1 was ordered up Lake Teche to Indian Bend where she continued her service.Launch No. 3

(StLch: cpl. 20; a. 1 how.)

        Launch No. 3, Acting Master Tilford in command, was one of the units of J. K. Mitchell's Confederate States River Defense Force in the lower Mississippi. She served as a picket and scout below New Orleans and was lost in the defense of Forts St. Philip and Jackson on 24 April 1862.

Launch No. 6
(StLch: cpl. 20; a. 1 how,)

        Launch No. 6, Acting Master Fairbanks in command, was a ship of the Confederate States River Defense Force assigned to the lower Mississippi. She was charged by General Duncan, CSA, with keeping fires lighted on the bank of the river below Fort St. Philip on 22-23 April 1862, and with maintaining a vigilant lookout for the Federal fleet under Farragut. Launch No. 6 was lost in the defense of Forts St. Philip and Jackson on 24 April 1862.Laura


        Laura, a Confederate schooner, sailed to Key West from the mainland on 23 October 1861. There her crew deserted and she was taken into custody by the United States schooner Wanderer. It is not at all certain that she was a public vessel.

(ScStr: t. 386 dw.; dr. 11'; s. 13 k.)

        Laurel was a new reputedly fast, 140-horsepower, Liverpool packet, Clyde-built by A. and J. Inglis to ply the Irish Sea to Sligo. The Confederacy's Comdr. James D. Bulloch bought her on 4 October 1864 at Liverpool. She cleared the 9th, ostensibly A for Matamoras, Mexico, via Havana and Nassau,@ the same day as Sea King from London and carrying a larger than ordinary crew.
        Commanded in fact by Lt. John F. Ramsay, CSN, whoever her titular A master,@ Laurel rendezvoused at Funchal, Madeira, with Sea King, about to be commissioned CSS Shenandoah. The steamer brought the cruiser her new commander, Lt. James I. Waddell, CSN, all but one of her officers, her prospective crew members (British), guns, ammunition and stores. In the group was a nucleus of veterans from Alabama, including her Chief Bos'n George Harwood to persuade his fellow-countrymen to enlist - including as many as possible of Laurel= s surplus hands.
        Laurel arrived first, coaled and went outside to meet Sea King upon her arrival; she transferred men and gear to Sea King, then departed for Teneriffe to land 33 crewmen unwilling to ship under Confederate articles. Continuing on to Nassau to keep up appearance of completing a commercial voyage, Laurel then ran into Wilmington, N.C., prepared to load cotton.
        Secretary Mallory, deciding 16 December that Laurel's 11.6-knot actual top speed was not enough and 11 feet with only 500 bales was too deep drought for the Cape Fear entrances, wrote Comdr. Bulloch, A I have directed the sale of the Laurel.@ Next day he wrote, A Lt. Ramsay arrived in Richmond and upon his representations the Secretary of the Treasury [George Trenholm] decided to take the Laurel at cost to us, and load her with cotton for Liverpool on account of the Treasury. Her register will be changed and she will be consigned to Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co. [Liverpool]. Lieutenant Ramsay will remain in command.@ Laurel was duly renamed Confederate States and survived the war, becoming Walter Stanhope, still under British register, and finally Peter Hutcheson's Niobe of Glasgow, also losing a mast at this time.

Le Grand
(SwStr: t. 235)

        Le Grand or La Grand, built at New Albany, Ind., in 1856 and first enrolled at Mobile, served the Confederacy, probably as an Army transport or store ship in the Western rivers; little is known of her but the fact that in September 1864 she was carrying some heavy chain for the Army Engineer Department somewhere in the Mobile-Tensas River area.


        Lecompt, also known as Lecampte or Le Compt, was chartered at Matagorda, Tex., by the Confederate army on 12 February 1862, to guard and patrol the different channels of the area and along the Matagorda peninsula.
         Lecompt was captured by USS Westfield and Clifton in Matagorda Bay, a few days before they bombarded Lavaca, Tex., in a futile effort to take that town. Lecompt returned to Confederate ownership when Galveston was recaptured from Union forces in January 1863.
        Lecompt ran aground on Bird Key Spit in Galveston Bay on 24 May 1865 while being chased by USS Carnubia. She wound up a wreck on Bolivar Point Beach.


        Leesburg, alternatively spelled Leesburgh, was employed in the Savannah River as a transport from 1862 through the end of the war. While under temporary command of Lieut. Joel S. Kennard, CSN, she figured in laying and removing torpedoes from the river during the last months of the war.

(ScTug: dr. 9'-11')

        Leviathan was a new, fast steamer belonging to the U.S. Army Quartermaster Department; she became the shortest-lived Confederate privateer on record, not excepting Caleb Cushing. Leviathan was captured 22 September 1863 by Acting Master David Nichols, CSN, an engineer and 18 men in Teaser (q.v.) during a daring raid off the mouths of the Mississippi but recaptured a few hours later by USS De Soto.

Lewis Cass
(Sch: cpl. 45; a. 1 68-pdr.)

        CSS Lewis Cass, originally the United States Revenue Cutter Lewis Cass, was seized by the Alabama authorities on 31 January 1861 and later turned over to the Confederate States Navy.
        Capt. J. J. Morrison, commanding the cutter Lewis Cass at Mobile, decided, like General Lee, to cast his lot with the Confederacy, and accordingly turned over his ship to Alabama, 30January 1861. The crew remained loyal to the United States and made its way through the hostile South to reach Northern territory.

Little Rebel
(ScRam: t. 159; dr. 12'; s. 10 k.; a. 3 12-pdr. r.)

        Little Rebel was built as R. E. or A. N. Watson at Belle Vernon, Pa., in 1859. She was acquired at New Orleans, La., by the Confederate Army, and selected by Capt. J. E, Montgomery, CSN, to be part of his River Defense Fleet. On 25 January 1862 Montgomery began her conversion to a cotton clad ram by placing a 4-inch oak sheath with a 1-inch iron covering on her bow, and by installing double pine bulkheads filled with compressed cotton bales.
        On 11 April Little Rebel's conversion was completed and she steamed from New Orleans to Fort Pillow, Tenn., where she operated in defense of the river approaches to Memphis, Tenn. On 10 May 1862, off Fort Pillow, Little Rebel, in company with seven other vessels under Captain Montgomery, attacked the ironclad gunboats of the Federal Mississippi Flotilla. The action of Plum Point Bend witnessed successful ramming tactics by the Confederates, but Little Rebel, under Capt. J. White Fowler, serving as Montgomery's flagship, was unable to get into the battle except with her guns. Brig. Gen. M. J. Thompson, MSG, who witnessed the battle said that Little Rebel, under a shower of enemy missiles, A ran amid the storm as heedlessly as if charmed.@ Meanwhile her guns supported Montgomery's other vessels ramming their opponents.
        Later Montgomery's force held off the Federal rams and gunboats until Fort Pillow was evacuated on 1 June. Then the Confederate vessels fell back on Memphis to take on coal. Following the Federal capture of Fort Pillow, Flag Officer C. H. Davis, USN, commanding the Mississippi Flotilla, pressed on without delay and appeared off Memphis with a superior force on 6 June 1862. Montgomery, unable to retreat to Vicksburg, Miss., because of his shortage of fuel, and unwilling to destroy his boats, determined to fight against heavy odds. In the ensuing Battle of Memphis, Little Rebel attacked the ram Monarch, one of two vessels in the Union force under Col. C. Ellet Jr., USA. Monarch met the attack and ran Little Rebel towards the Arkansas shore. The Confederate vessel was hit by fire from USS Carondelet and then was struck by Monarch and beached by the blow. Little Rebel was captured and taken into Federal service.

(SwStr: 1. 180'; b. 40'; dph. 9'6"; a. 2 30-pdr. r., 4 shell guns)

        CSS Livingston was constructed at New Orleans, La., during 1861, a ferryboat converted to a warship on the ways by John Hughes and Co. In January 1862 she was taken up the Mississippi River to Columbus, Ky., to be fitted for service and during much of that year operated in the vicinity of Island No. 10, with Comdr. R. F. Pinkney, CSN, in command. She formed part of the flotilla, at one time numbering 17 vessels, under command of Major Gcn. M. Lovell, CSA. Secretary of the Navy S. R. Mallory wrote General Lovell on 23 January 1862: A The Livingston you will find to be, I think, a superior steamer, capable of doing capital service . . .@ Later she ascended the Yazoo River in Mississippi where she was burned by the Confederates on 26 June 1862 to prevent capture.
        An opinion of her somewhat divergent from Sec. Mallory's was expressed by Midshipman James M. Morgan, CSN, who served in her: A There had also been built (from designs by a locomotive roundhouse architect, I suppose) the most wonderful contraption that was ever seen afloat, called the Livingston; she carried 6 guns, 3 for'd and 3 abaft the paddle boxes, and she was almost circular in shape. She was so slow that her crew facetiously complained that when she was going downstream at full speed they could not sleep on account of the drift logs catching up with her and bumping against the stern.@

(SwStr: t. 514; i. 160' bp.; b. 26'; dph. 7')

         Logan, an iron steamer, was built in 1855 at Wilmington, Del., as Harlan & Hollingsworth's hull 35.In 1861 she was chartered by the State of Virginia and served the Confederate army as a transport in the Virginia rivers.
        Logan was burned at Barrett's Landing, 25 miles above White House, Va., on the Pamunkey River by Confederate forces evacuating the area at the approach of Currituck and Seth Low under Lt. A. Murray, USN.

Lone Star
(SwStr: t. 126)

         Lone Star, a light draft steamer built in 1854 at Louisville, Ky., was operated out of Galveston, Tex., where she was chartered by the Texas Marine Department in July 1863. She served as a transport in Texas coastal waters for the remainder of the war.

Louis d'Or
(SwStr: t. 343; 1. 180'; b. 32'; dph. 7')

         Louis d'Or was built in 1860 at Cincinnati, Ohio, and operated as a New Orleans steamboat.
         She was taken over by the Confederate Government and operated by the Navy as a cargo ship on the Mississippi and Red Rivers.

(IrcSc & Centerwheel Str: t. 1,400; 1. 264'; b. 62'; cpl. ca. 300;
a. 2 7-inch rifles, 3 9-inch shell guns, 4 8-inch shell guns and 7 32-pdr. r.)

        Louisiana was designed for four engines, two paddlewheels in a center-well and two propellers, with twin rudders. Her casemate - all four sides sloping sharply at nearly a 45E angle - extended her full length, less 25 feet at each end, and was covered by AT@ railroad iron in two courses, while its top was encompassed by sheet iron bulwarks nearly four feet high.
         CSS Louisiana was begun by E. C. Murray at New Orleans in mid-October 1861, but lack of materials impeded her completion. On 20 April 1862 after Union mortar boats under Comdr. D. D. Porter, USN, had been shelling Fort St. Philip and Fort Jackson incessantly for two days, Louisiana, although unfinished and unready for action, was towed to Fort St. Philip. There, in anticipation of a Federal drive past the forts, up the lower Mississippi and into New Orleans, she was to participate with the Confederate naval force, in conjunction with the River Defense Fleet and the forts, in defending the passage to the city.
         Louisiana, still incomplete, had insufficient power to maneuver as a warship in any naval action. Capt. J. K. Mitchell, CSN, commanding the naval forces in the lower Mississippi, decided that she should be operated as a floating battery. Accordingly he had her tied to the eastern bank of the Mississippi a half mile above Fort St. Philip. With mechanics on board working furiously night and day to prepare her batteries for action, Louisiana lay just clear of the line of fire of Commander Porter's mortar boats which continued bombarding the forts.
         On 24 April 1862, Flag Officer D. G. Farragut, USN, ran his fleet past the forts on his way to capture New Orleans. Almost all of the Confederate ships were destroyed in the action. Louisiana, under Comdr. C. F. McIntosh, CSN, might have posed a serious threat to the Union fleet, but her lack of maneuverability and the inadequacy of some of her gun mountings which limited the direction of her fire made it impossible for the Confederates to make use of her full potential. Yet, for the most part the ironclad remained impregnable, and posed a constant danger to any Federal ship coming within her range and line of fire. USS Iroquois which came against her delivered a full broadside at a distance of a few feet, but did her little serious damage, while she herself was fiddled by Louisiana’s fire.
         After Farragut's fleet passed the forts on 24 April, Commander Porter remained in the lower Mississippi with his mortar boats, completely isolating the Confederate force. Meanwhile Captain Mitchell worked frantically to get Louisiana's propellers ready for service so that she might sail effectively against the Federals. On 28 April 1862 just before this work was completed, the forts, with their communications cut off, surrendered to Commander Porter. Captain Mitchell, realizing that the defeat of his force was now inevitable, and not considering himself bound by the surrender of the military garrison, set fire to Louisiana and retired on her two tenders to the opposite bank, where he was later captured. Meanwhile, as the articles of capitulation of the forts were being drawn up under flags-of-truce on board Commander Porter's flagship, the burning Louisiana broke loose and drifted downstream. Her guns fired as the flames reached their charges, and then the whole ship exploded violently in front of Fort St. Philip, and was seen and heard for many miles.

(SwStr: t. 743; 1. 231.5'; b. 38.6'; dph. 7.5')

         Louisville, later known as Ouachita and Vicksburg, was built at New Albany, Ind., in 1861 and served privately in the Mississippi River area. Adm. D. D. Porter, USN, described her as A one of the largest and best steamers in western waters,@ and A the pride of the Mississippi.@ The Confederate army fitted her out at Port Hudson, La., in February 1863, and used her in the Mississippi River area as a cargo ship.
         Louisville was captured on 13July 1863 on the Little River, La., by Manitou and Rattler. These had sailed from the junction of the Black, Ouachita and Tensas Rivers, and were part of a gunboat force under Lt. Comdr. T. Selfridge, USN, sent by Acting Rear Admiral Porter.
        Louisville was renamed Ouachita on 29 September 1863 at Admiral Porter's request, and was commissioned in the U.S. Navy on 18 January 1864. She was operated privately after the war as Vicksburg, and sold abroad in 1869.

Lucy Gwin
(StwStr: t. 152)

        Lucy Gwin, also called Lucy Gwynn, Lucy Gwinn, and Gwinn, was built in Freedom, Pa., in 1859. Her home port was Galveston, Tex., and in 1861 she passed into the Texas Marine Department under Confederate army control.
         Lucy Gwin served as a transport and cargo ship along the Texas coast. She was surrendered at Matagorda to Union forces in late spring of 1865 but was carried off and anchored at Bagdad, on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande, where demands for her return were made of the controlling French authorities.

Lynn Boyd

         Lynn Boyd, under Captain Smedley, proceeded in company with Dunbar on 4 February 1862 from Fort Henry to Paris Landing, Tenn., for two Confederate Army regiments stationed there. Fort Henry was surrendered on 6 February and Lynn Boyd was burned on the Tennessee River, at the mouth of Duck River, 7 February to prevent her capture by Federal gunboats.


         Lynx was a long, very fast paddle-steamer with two stacks and two masts, all painted white. Managed by John Fraser & Co., Charleston, she carried Confederate Government cargo and is believed to have been a public vessel for all practical purposes.
        She met her end bound for Bermuda running out of Wilmington, N.C., under Captain Reid, 25 September 1864, with 600 bales of cotton, passengers and special cargo, including $50,000 in Government gold. She was hit eight times, six below the waterline, by the 100-pounder and 30-pounder rifles of much slower USS Howquah, assisted by Niphon and Governor Buckingham; sinking, with one of her wheels damaged, Lynx had to be beached about six miles below Fort Fisher. The Confederates all escaped, along with the gold, although Federal sharpshooters got near enough to wound one crew member. The ship's remains were set afire.
        Ironically, an intelligence report to Secretary Welles, about I September 1864, had warned that, A the swift steamers Lynx and Badger were being fitted out at Wilmington to make a dash at our blockaders . . . their machinery protected by compressed cotton . . . each vessel having about 200 men, will sally forth early in September, and, by boarding, attempt the capture of one or more of our vessels. If precautions are not taken this plan will certainly succeed.@ It was a false alarm, although Lt. J. W. Balch, Howquah's captain, in this instance made one of the rare charges that a blockade runner had fired back at him - but only two shots and they could have been cross-fire from the fort.