Table of Contents

Instruction for Field Artillery;
complied from Standard Military Authority;
embracing Schools of the Piece, Battery and
Battalion or Evolutions of Batteries; with
an Instructive Appendix for the
Confederate States of America.

Edited by Duane Borchers, Sr.

BK-006 $45.00 (Foreign; $75.00)(8 1 /2" x 11", soft cover book, 264 pages)
    Confederate artillery training, from the recruit's first day, to the maneuvering of mass batteries. Soft cover.

PART I
Chapter I
Organization, Material and Service
Artillery and its duties

Artillery troops and their service, pg. 1

Uses and objects of field artillery, pg. 2

Organization and equipment of field batteries, pg. 2

Organization for instruction, pg. 2

Organization for the march, pg. 2

Organization for war, pg. 2

Composition of the Battery of Manoeuvre, pg. 3

Definitions, pg. 4

Elementary movements and their objectives, pg. 4

Method of giving commands, pg. 5

Bugle signals and calls, pg. 5

General principals, pg. 5

Chapter II
Tactical Instruction
School of the Piece
The Cannoneer Dismounted

Position of the cannoneer dismounted, pg. 2

Eyes right - Eyes left, pg. 3

Facings, pg. 4

Marching, pg. 7

To halt, pg. 8

To march backwards, pg. 9

To mark time when marching, pg. 10

To change step, pg. 11

To face when marching, pg. 12

To rest, pg. 17

Parade rest, pg. 18

Chapter III
The Gun Detachment

Formation and telling off the detachment, pg. 19

To form in one rank, pg. 20

Alignments, pg. 21

Direct march in single file, pg. 24

Change of direction in file, pg. 27

Oblique march in file, pg. 28

Direct march in line, pg. 29

To halt the detachment, pg. 30

Wheelings, pg. 31

Wheelings, in circle, pg. 32

Wheelings, to the right or left, pg. 33

The reverse, pg. 34

To move forward, pg. 35

To form the detachment in two ranks, pg. 36

To march by a flank, pg. 37

Marching by a flank to form line, pg. 39

Oblique in line, pg. 40

To march to the rear, pg. 41

To march backwards, pg. 42

To open and close ranks, pg. 43

Execution of the movements at the double quick, pg. 45

Chapter IV

The Platoon, pg. 46

Chapter V
The Section

Formation of and posts of officers, pg. 47

Alignments, pg. 48

To open and close ranks, pg. 49

To break into column to the right or left, pg. 50

To march in column, pg. 51

To halt the column, pg. 53

To change direction in column, pg. 54

To march by a flank when in column, pg. 55

Oblique march in column, pg. 57

Being in column, to form line pg. 58

To form line advancing, pg. 62

To advance in line, pg. 62

Oblique in line, pg. 64

To change direction in line, pg. 65

To march by a flank when in line, pg. 66

To change direction when faced by a flank, pg. 69

Marching by a flank to form column of detachments, pg. 70

To pass from the march in column to a march by a flank, pg. 71

Marching by a flank to form line, pg. 72

To form the line or column faced in the opposite direction, pg. 73

To march to the rear, pg. 74

Posting the detachments with their pieces, pg. 75

Execution of the movements at the double quick, pg. 76

Chapter VI
The Company

Composition of and posts of officers, pg. 77

Exercise of the company, pg. 77

Chapter VII
Manual of the Sabre

To open files, pg. 79

To close files, pg. 111

Chapter VIII
Manual of the Piece

Posts of the cannoneers, piece unlimbered, pg. 115

Loading and firing, pg. 116

Loading by detail, pg. 118

Moving the piece by hand, piece unlimbered, pg. 128

Changing posts, pg. 130

Equipments, pg. 131

Limbering, pg. 132

Posts of cannoneers, piece limbered, pg. 135

To form the detachment, pg. 136

Posts of the detachments at their pieces, pg. 138

Change of posts of detachments, pg. 139

To post the cannoneers at the piece, limbered, pg. 141

Moving the piece by hand, piece limbered, pg. 142

Unlimbering and coming into action, pg. 144

Movements with the prolonge, pg. 147

Service of the gun with diminished numbers, pg. 148

Supply of ammunition when in action, pg. 149

Changing ammunition chests, pg. 150

Changing wheels, pg. 151

Dismounting pieces, pg. 152

Mounting pieces, pg. 153

Carrying pieces, pg. 154

Dismounting carriages, pg. 155

Mounting carriages, pg. 156

Posts of cannoneers, pg. 157

To mount and dismount the cannoneers, pg. 158

Chapter IX
The Cannoneer Mounted

To bridle the horse, pg. 163

To saddle, pg. 164

To lead out, pg. 165

Position before mounting, pg. 166

To mount, pg. 167

Position of the cannoneer mounted, pg. 168

To lengthen the snaffle rein, pg. 169

To shorten the snaffle rein, pg. 170

To cross the reins in one hand, pg. 171

To take the reins in both hands, pg. 172

The use of the reins, pg. 173

The use of the legs, pg. 174

The effect of the legs and reins combined, pg. 175

To march, pg. 176

To halt, pg. 177

To turn to the right or left, pg. 178

To reverse to the right or left, pg. 179

To oblique, pg. 180

To rein back, pg. 181

To dismount, pg. 182

To file off, pg. 183

To unsaddle, pg. 184

To unbridle, pg. 185

Length of the stirrups, pg. 186

Position of the foot in the stirrup, pg. 187

Position of the bridle hand, pg. 188

The principal movements of the bridle hand, pg. 189

To trot; to trot out; to gallop, pg. 190

Chapter X
The Detachment - Horse Artillery

To mount and dismount in two ranks, pg. 192

To form in one rank, pg. 94

Alignments, pg. 195

To form in two ranks, pg. 199

To open and close the ranks, pg. 200

To rein back the detachment, pg. 202

To march the detachment by file, pg. 203

Direct march in file, pg. 205

Change of direction in file, pg. 206

To halt and to move off, pg. 207

Oblique in file, pg. 208

To break into single file, pg. 209

To form in double files, pg. 210

To form the detachment in line, pg. 211

Direct march in line, pg. 214

Wheelings, pg. 215

Oblique in line, pg. 227

Changes of gait, pg. 228

The Platoon
Exercise of Several Detachments - Horse Artillery

Formation of detachments and posts of officers, pg. 230

To mount and dismount, pg. 233

Alignments, pg. 233

To open and close ranks, pg. 233

Oblique in line, pg. 233

Oblique in column, pg. 233

Oblique in file, pg. 233

To march by file, pg. 233

To change direction in file, pg. 233

To halt and move off, pg. 233

Changes of gait, pg. 233

To break into single file, pg. 233

To form double files, pg. 233

To break into column, pg. 234

Change of direction in column, pg. 237

The column marching to face in the opposite direction, pg. 238

Being in column to form in line, pg. 239

To form line advancing, pg. 242

To advance in line, pg. 243

To change direction in line, pg. 244

Marching in line to march in the opposite direction, pg. 245

Marching by a flank to form column by detachments, pg. 246

In column of detachments to march by file, pg. 247

Posting the detachments with the piece, pg. 248

Chapter XII
The Driver

To harness, pg. 249

Leading to the exercise ground, pg. 250

To mount, pg. 251

To dismount, pg. 251

Marching to the front, pg. 251

To halt, pg. 251

To rein back, pg. 251

To file off, pg. 251

To turn to the right or left, pg. 252

The reverse, pg. 253

To oblique, pg. 254

To break into column to the front, pg. 255

To form line, pg. 257

To unharness, pg. 260

Chapter XIII
The Team

Arrangement of the teams, pg. 262

To break into column, pg. 263

To change direction in column, pg. 263

To halt, pg. 263

To advance in line, pg. 263

To march by a flank, pg. 263

Changes of gait, pg. 263

Oblique in column, pg. 264

To form line, pg. 265

To form line advancing, pg. 268

Oblique in line, pg. 269

The reverse, pg. 270

The piece horsed, pg. 271

To enter the park, pg. 272

Hitching the teams, pg. 273

To unpark, pg. 275

To wheel, pg. 276

To oblique, pg. 277

To reverse, pg. 278

The about, pg. 279

To rest, pg. 281

To rein back to the right, pg. 283

To park, pg. 284

To unhitch, pg. 285

To leave the park, pg. 286

Chapter XIV
The Section

Composition of, pg. 286

Posts of officers, pg. 286

Exercise of the section, pg. 286

PART II
Chapter I
School of the Battery

General principles, pg. 287

Measures of the elements composing a battery and of its formations, pg. 288

Formations of the battery, pg. 289

Manning the battery, pg. 292

Chapter II
Movements in Column

To unpark, pg. 293

Formations into line and battery from column of pieces, pg. 294

To halt, pg. 295

Change of gait, pg. 296

To form sections, pg. 297

In column of pieces, to form the caissons on the flank, pg. 298

To march in column, pg. 299

To march by a flank, pg. 300

Oblique march, pg. 301

Passage of carriage in column, pg. 302

About in column, pg. 303

Countermarch in column, pg. 305

To change direction in column, pg. 306

To diminish the front of a column on the march, pg. 307

In column, with the caissons on the flank, to replace them in front or rear, pg. 308

Chapter III
To Pass From the Order in Column to the Order
in Line and the Reverse

To form forward into line, pg. 309

To form line faced to the rear, pg. 310

To form line to the right or left, pg. 311

To form line on the right or left, pg. 312

To break into column to the front, pg. 313

To break into column to the rear, pg. 314

To break into column to the right or left, pg. 315

To break into column from one flank to march towards the other, pg. 316

To break into column to the rear from one flank to march towards the other, pg. 317

To break into column to the front when the battery is marching in line, pg. 318

To form line advancing, pg. 319

To form double column on the center section, pg. 320

To deploy the double column into line to the front, pg. 321

To form the double column into line to the right or left, pg. 323

Chapter IV
Movements in Line

To advance in line, pg. 324

To halt the battery and align it, pg. 325

To change direction in line, pg. 326

To close intervals in line, pg. 328

About, or countermarch with diminished intervals, pg. 329

To resume intervals, pg. 330

Passage of obstacles, pg. 331

Chapter V
Formation in Battery

In line, with pieces in front, to form in battery to the front, pg. 332

In line, to form in battery to the front, by throwing the caissons to the rear, pg. 333

In line, with caissons in front, to form in battery to the front, pg. 334

In line, with pieces in front, to form in battery to the rear, pg. 335

In line, with caissons in front, to form in battery to the rear, pg. 336

In battery, to form in line to the front, pg. 337

In battery, to form in line to the rear, pg. 338

In column, with pieces in front, to form in battery to the front, pg. 339

In column, with caissons in front, to form in battery to the front, pg. 340

In column, with pieces in front, to form in battery to the rear, pg. 341

In column, with caissons in front, to form in battery to the rear, pg. 342

In column, with pieces in front, to form in battery to the right or left, pg. 343

In column, with caissons in front, to form in battery to the right or left, pg. 344

In column, with pieces in front, to form in battery on the right or left, pg. 345

In column, with caissons in front, to form in battery on the right or left, pg. 346

To deploy the double column into battery to the front or rear, pg. 347

To deploy the double column into battery to the right or left, pg. 348

To pass from the order in battery to the order in column, pg. 349

To march by a flank, pg. 350

Chapter VI
Firings

To fire by battery, half battery, section and piece, pg. 351

To cease firing, pg. .351

To move and fire with the prolonge, pg. 352

To fire advancing, pg. .353

To fire retiring, pg. 354

Movements for firing in echelon, pg. 355

Being in echelon, to form line, pg. 356

To fire to the rear, pg. 357

Chapter VII
Changes of Front in Battery

Change of front to fire to the right, left wing forward and the reverse, pg. 358

Change of front to fire to the left, left wing forward and the reverse, pg. 359

Change of front to fire to the left, left wing to the rear and the reverse, pg. 360

Change of front to fire to the right, left wing to the rear and the reverse, pg. 361

To pass a defile in front, pg. 362

To pass a defile in rear, pg. 363

Chapter VIII
Parade for Review and Inspection

Review of a battery, pg. 364

Review of a battery in connection with other troops, pg. 364

To march in review in line or column of half batteries, pg. 364

Officers' salute with the sabre, pg. 365 153

Inspection, pg. 366

PART III
Chapter I
Evolutions of Batteries
General Principles

The different formations and positions of several batteries united, pg. 367

Posts of officers, pg. 367 155

Designation of batteries, pg. 368

The guides of march, pg. 369

Order in column, posts of officers, etc., pg. .371

Order in line and in battery, posts of officers, pg. 372

Commands, method of giving and repeating, pg. 373

Alignments, pg. 374

To march in column, pg. 375

To halt, pg. .376

Changes of gait, pg. 377

To march by a flank, pg. 377

Oblique march, pg. 379

Passage of carriages, pg. 379

To about, pg. 380

The countermarch, pg. 381

Change of direction, pg. 382

General remark, pg. 383

To pass from the order in column by section, to the order by battery (close column), pg. 384

To pass from the order in close column to the order in column by section, pg. 385

Change of the direction of the close column, by a simultaneous movement, pg. 386

To pass from the order in column to the order in line, pg. .387

To form faced to the rear into line, pg. 388

To form to the left (or right), into line, pg. 389

To form on the right (or left), into line, pg. 390

To form to the left (or right) and forward into line, pg. 391

To form to the left (or right) and faced to the rear into line, pg. 392

To form forward into line, on a line passed by the head of column, pg. 393

To form faced to the rear, on a line passed by the head of column, pg. 394

To deploy the close column forward, into line, in advantage of its front, pg. 395

To deploy the close column forward, into line, on one of the batteries which stands fast, pg. 396

To deploy the close column in march without halting it, pg. 397

To deploy the close column faced to the rear, into line, pg. 398

To deploy the close column to the left (or right), into line, pg. 399

To deploy the close column on the left (or right), into line, pg. 400

To pass from the order in line to the order in column, pg. 401

To break by section from one wing to march towards the other, pg. 402

To form close column, faced to the right (or left), pg. 403

To form close column from a halt, without a change of front, pg. .404

To form close column, when in march, without a change of front, pg. 405

To advance in line, pg. .406

To halt, pg. 407

Changes of gait, pg. 407

To march by a flank, pg. 407

To oblique, pg. 407

Passage of carriages, pg. 407

The about, pg. 407

The countermarch, pg. 407

To close intervals, pg. 408

Movements with closed intervals, pg. 409

To resume intervals, pg. 410

Formation and deployment of two parallel columns, pg. 411

Formation and deployment of four parallel columns, pg. 412

Passage of obstacles, pg. 413

Changes of front of the line of battle, pg. 414

Chapter II
Formations in Battery

To pass from the order in line to the order in battery, pg. 415

To form to the rear into battery, pg. 416

In battery, to form forward, into line, pg. 417

In battery, to form faced to the rear, into line, pg. 418

To pass from the order in column, to the order in battery, pg. 419

To form faced to the rear, into battery, pg. 420

To form to the left (or right), into battery, pg. 421

To form on the left (or right), into battery, pg. 422

To form to the left (or right) and forward, into battery, pg. 423

To form to the left (or right) and faced to the rear into battery, pg. 424

To form forward, into battery, on a line which has been passed
by the head of the column, pg. 425

To form faced to the rear, into battery,
on a line passed by the head of column, pg. 426

To deploy the close column forward, into battery, in advance of its front, pg. 427

To deploy the close column faced to the rear, into battery,
in advance of its front, pg. 428

To deploy the close column, pieces in front, forward, into battery, in line with one of the batteries which stands fast, pg. 429

To deploy the close column, caissons in front, faced to the rear, into battery, in line with one of the batteries which stands fast, pg. .430

To deploy the close column to the left (or right), into battery, pg. .431

To deploy the close column on the left (or right), into battery, pg. 432

Deployment of two parallel columns forward, or faced to the rear, into battery, pg. 433

Deployment of four parallel columns forward, or faced to the rear, into battery, pg. 434

To pass from the order in battery, to the order in column, pg. 435

Being in battery, to march by a flank, pg. 436

Chapter III
Execution of the Firing

To commence and to cease firing, pg. 437

To fire advancing, pg. 438

To fire in retreat, pg. 439

To fire to the rear, pg. 440

Chapter IV
Changes of Front in Battery

Change of front on the right wing, to fire to the right,
left wing forward and the reverse, pg. 441

Change of front on the right wing, to fire to the left,
left wing forward and the reverse, pg. 442

Change of front on the right wing, to fire to the right,
left wing to the rear and the reverse, pg. 443

Change of front on the right wing, to fire to the left,
left wing to the rear and the reverse, pg. 444

Changes of front on a central battery, pg. 445

Change of front on the center, to fire to the right,
left wing forward and the reverse, pg. 446

Change of front on the center, to fire to the right,
left wing to the rear and the reverse, pg. 447

To pass a defile in front, pg. 448

To pass a defile in rear, pg. 449

Chapter V
Arrangements for Parades and Reviews

For parades, pg. 450

For reviews, pg. 451

APPENDIX

Pointing and Ranges, pg. 201

Definitions, pg. 201

Theory of pointing, pg. 201

Pendulum hausse, pg. 202

Seat for pendulum hausse, pg. 202

Muzzle sight, pg. 202

Practical hints on pointing, pg. 202

Causes which disturb the true flight of projectiles, pg. 203

Approximate ranges of field guns and howitzers, pg. 204

To determine the height of the breech sight
for different angles of elevation, pg. 219

Management of a Battery

Artillery horses - Description, pg. 220

General rules for stable management, pg. 221

Grooming, pg. 222

Instruction for the preservation of harness, pg. 222

Field Service

Marches, pg. 224

Ascents, pg. 226

Descents, pg. 226

Crossing fords, pg. 227

Passage of military bridges, pg. 227

Reversing a battery on a narrow road, pg. 228

In action or preparing for action, pg. 228

Replacing killed or disabled horses, pg. 230

Spiking and unspiking cannon, pg. 230

Righting carriages that have been overturned, pg. 230

Camp of artillery, pg. 231

Commencing an action, pg. 232

Excerpts from the Appendix

Camp of Artillery

The artillery is encamped near the troops to which it is attached, so as to be protected from attack and to contribute to the defence of the camp. Sentinels for the park are furnished by the artillery, and, when necessary, by the other troops.

Disposition of Pieces, etc.

First Mode

In this mode the pieces are parked with diminished intervals; and the tents and horses are placed upon the flanks in lines parallel to each other and perpendicular to the front, so as to give the encampment a front of the same extent as the battery in line. The horses of each half battery are picketed together upon their appropriate flank. The team of the flank piece is placed at the end of the picket rope in front and that of its caisson next. Then come the teams of the next piece and caisson and so on in the same order. The horses of the chiefs of pieces are with their appropriate teams. The teams of the other carriages are afterwards picketed in the same order with reference to their positions in park; and finally the horses of the officers near the end of the rope.

When two or more batteries are encamped together, the interval between the camps is equal to that between two batteries in line; and the captain's tent is between those of his lieutenants.

In horse artillery, the front of the encampment would be 97 yards and the interval between the pieces 7 yards. The horses of each detachment would be picketed after the teams of its caissons.

Second Mode

In this mode the pieces are parked with full intervals and the horses and tents are placed in parallel lines in rear. When a single line of rope is not sufficient for the horses, a second is placed 4 yards in rear of the first and the horses made to face each other. The teams of the pieces and caissons are placed in the order of their pieces along the center of the first line and those of the other carriages are placed upon their flanks opposite the half batteries to which they belong. If necessary a part of them are placed in rear of the second line. The horses of the officers are at the extremities of the line.

In horse artillery, in which the second line is always necessary, the horses of the detachments are picketed together in their proper order along the center of that line; and the officers' horses at the extremities of the same.

In this mode of encampment the intervals between two adjoining batteries and the position of the captain's tent are subject to the same rules as in the other.

Instead of placing the harness in lines it may be placed upon the carriages and covered by tarpaulins when it is possible to do so. The saddles and bridles of the riding horses may also be covered by placing them in the tents with the men.

The number of lines upon which a battery is parked varies according to the number of spare carriages attached. The battery of manoeuvre, which is composed of the pieces and their appropriate caissons, occupying the two front lines.

Commencing an Action

Before the commencement of an action a battery should be placed as much as possible under cover, by taking advantages of banks, hollow ways, buildings, woods and etc. It is not advisable to move a battery at once into position on the field; but if unavoidable, it should be masked as much as possible until ordered to open fire.

A battery should be masked, if possible, by covering it with cavalry in preference to infantry, as the former does it more effectually and is sooner moved out of the way.

Batteries should be placed in relation to the troops with which they are acting, upon the flank of a line, but at such a distance as not to impede its movements and at the same time to be unfettered in their own; the artillery may thus represent the faces of a bastion and the line of troops the curtain.

The front of a line of troops is the worst possible position for a field battery, while a position in rear is nearly as bad; the former obstructing the movements of the troops, the latter liable to seriously injure, or at least disquiet them.

In supporting an attack, the battery should be carefully kept clear of the intended march of our own troops and such points occupied as may afford the greatest annoyance to the enemy.

Batteries should generally be disposed with regard to the enemy's troops, so as to secure a cross fire on his position and on all the ground over which he moves to the attack, endeavoring to take him at all times in the direction of his greatest dimensions; that is, obliquely, or in flank, when in line and in front when formed in columns. Moderate heights, commanding as much as possible the surrounding country, should always be taken advantage of, but not such as may prevent operations in advance if required.

When, from particular circumstances, the front of the army is too extended and unavoidably divided into two lines, it may become necessary to place one or more batteries in the center, if those on the flanks are unable to sweep the whole front; but great care must be taken not to impede the advance or retreat of the troops when required.

The fire of the field batteries should not be carried on at the same uniform rate; the destruction of the enemy being the object, it follows that at distant ranges a greater degree of care is required in pointing the guns; the fire is slow and steady and increasing in rapidity as the enemy advances, without, however, impairing its precision.

The fire of field batteries should never be carried on in salvoes, but in a regular manner, well sustained and with distinct intervals between every round, commencing slowly and increasing in rapidity as the range diminishes.

The effects of the fire will be in proportion to the number of guns brought together and therefore, in order to strike a decisive blow, this should at once be done.

Two solid shot, or case shot, or three of canister, can be fired from a field piece in one minute; the latter being fired at short distances and not requiring such care in aiming.

Two is the smallest number of guns that may with safety be employed in face of an enemy.

Only under peculiar circumstances is the practice of employing field batteries against those of the enemy recommended; as, for instance, when his troops are well covered and his guns exposed, or their fire very destructive. Their fire should be directed principally against columns of attack and masses, or upon positions which are intended to be carried.

A battery can come into action in the field and fire one round in 25 seconds, timing from the order action front to the discharge of one piece.

Should cavalry be advancing to attack infantry and first observed at the distance of a mile, passing over the first half mile at a trot, the next quarter of a mile at the manoeuvering gallop and the remaining distance at an increased gallop, terminating with the charge - occupying altogether about six minutes - during the last 1500 yards of their advance, a battery might fire eleven rounds per piece.

A battery can fire thirty six rounds against infantry in 16 1/4 minutes, supposing them to pass over 1500 yards.

Should the enemy attempt to force the passage of a river, the best position for the artillery to oppose it is wherever the best cross fire can be obtained in order to harass him as much as possible and if he has succeeded in passing over any portion of the troops, it should be directed against their formation.

When the enemy is making the passage of a river in retreat, the guns should be posted in such a position as to bear upon the batteries that cover the retreat and also upon his bridges.

The bridge being generally laid in a reentering angle, batteries should be posted on each side of the bridge and far enough from it to secure a cross fire on the opposite flank.

The indiscriminate expenditure of ammunition should, upon no account, be permitted in the field during action, particularly at the commencement, as the want of it at the close may decide the fate of the day. It should be sparingly used in skirmishing and minor affairs, especially when at a distance from supplies, or in anticipation of a general action.

The reserve should be employed when a particular point of the line requires additional support, a favorable position is to be seized, an impression has been made on the line by the enemy, a forward or retrograde movement is in contemplation, or when a determined attack is to be made on him. Under such circumstances the reserve should come up and take part in the action and it is of the utmost importance that this should be done as expeditiously as possible.

Previous to the engagement, the reserve should be placed in rear with the second line, out of the range of shot and as little exposed as circumstances will admit, but always in such a position as to have ready access to the front and rear.

Never, until the very last extremity, should guns be abandoned before an enemy. An artilleryman must never forget that his gun is his proper arm; that here lies his strength; that here is his post of honor and duty; also, that the last discharges are always the most destructive and may possibly insure the safety of the whole army, or turn the tide of victory in their favor.

The position of cavalry, when placed in support of a battery, is on its flank and as much concealed as possible.

When infantry are formed in squares to resist the charge of cavalry, the guns should be placed outside at the angles of the squares, the limbers, horses and etc., on the inside. Should the detachments be driven from their guns, they will retire into the square after discharging their pieces and taking with them the sponges and other equipments; the moment the enemy has retired, they recommence the fire. Supposing the infantry formed in echelon of regimental squares and that the time, or small extent of the squares, would not admit of the limbers, etc., being placed inside, then the wagons and limbers should be brought up with their broadsides to the front, so as to occupy, if possible, the space between the guns, leaving no intervals for the cavalry to cut through; the prolonge or drag ropes, might also offer an effectual momentary impediment to them if properly stretched and secured.

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